ARCHAEOASTRONOMY AND SHAMANISM IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA
On the Caprione’s promontory (Eastern Liguria) we have discovered a
“quadrilithon” (a trilithon with a lower horizontal stone, Fig. 1) oriented
to the summer’s solstice sunset, through which the sun light produces a
gilded butterfly (Fig. 2) on an opposite phallic stone. On the promontory
we have discovered five megalithic places which form the Cassiopeia’s constellation
mark also, we think that in the promontory these two elements determinate
the presence of a sacred place of shamanism, dedicated to the “generating-constellation”
Cassiopeia. The “generating-contellations” are the Northern constellations
from which spirits of men arrive in the World and to which spirits return,
with the aid of the shaman (Rappenglück M., 1998).
These two elements are present in the Passo di Corvo statuette (Puglia) dated 5 500 A.C., which represents a shaman woman during a trance (Fig. 3); she shows the two brests, and below two marks of Cassiopeia and two butterflies (Gimbutas M., 1990). In this statuette in hieratic attitude (Tiné S., 1983) you can observe like nostrils are marked by two small holes, one of which preserves red pigment traces (Tiné S., 1983).
In the Central Massif (Lozère-France) we have discovered two megalithic places with constructions like the Caprione’s promontory “quadrilithon”.
In the “Calvaire” (Châteauneuf de Randon, Fig. 4) we could control that the sun light enters the construction at the summer’s solstice sunrise (azimuth 56°). In the same moment (June 8, 2001, summer time 06 01) we could control that the full moon set was visible, in opposite direction, in another hole of the megalithic construction (azimuth 216°).
Another megalithic construction is in Château Vieux de Randon (Fig. 5); we have calculated that this quadrilithon is oriented to the azimuth 320° and in 3 000 B.C. the Cassiopeia constellation was visible across this opening at the winter’s solstice midnight.
In Valcamonica (Northern Italy) we have seen in Paspardo (Dos Sulif,
Fig. 6) a “rosa camuna” represented with the Cassiopeia constellation and
in Foppe di Nadro we have recognized in the “Idolo farfalla” - V Millenium
B.C. (Anati E., I982); the shaman who supports a soul beginning
the fly to the “generating-constellation” (Fig. 7).
In the Sas Concas eneolithic hypogeum (Oniferi, Nuoro), a necropolis with artificial grottoes (domus de janas) the ancient Sardinians engraved a cosmic representation placing four cupmarks on the left wall and the rudder on the right wall (Fig. 8); this sketch represents the Great Bear constellation as it appeared at the 2.700 B.C. winter's solstice midnight. The dead and the birth (Fig. 9) the butterfly (Fig. 10), a shaman (?), the Gemini (?) and Cassiopeia constellations are represented also (Fig. 11).
In the sanctuary of PietraPerzia (Enna, Sicily – Fig. 12) we have seen that the “solium” (the stone sacerdotal chair) is positioned to see the summer’s solstice sunset (Fig 13). In Rocca Cavour (Piedmont-Northern Italy) we have recognized in a rock picture, dated 3 500 B.C. (and published like an anthropomorph with a cap) the presence of the shaman woman, the Cassiopeia constellation, the Milky Way and two masked anthropomorphs that seem shamans (Fig. 14).
We have calculated that in 3 500 B.C., at the summer’s solstice midnight, the Cassiopeia constellation was rising in the East (azimuth 90°) in a vertical shape, crossing the horizon.
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